Mar 25 2020

The jajmani system has evolved from the word Jajman which means upper caste people. William H Wiser was the first one to introduce the term. THE JAJMANI SYSTEM. AN INTRODUCTION: The Jajmani system is the system of exchange of goods and services between the members of different castes. classic study (The Hindu Jajmani System, ) and proceeding to a range of stu – other writers, of the traditional jajmani system as a system in which the.

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During a lean year, the farmer jajman does not give much food-grain to his kamins but when he gets a good produce, he does not mind giving some extra food-grains to those kamins who have rendered good services to him. Majumdar has given the example of a Thakur family of Rajput caste in a village in Lucknow district in Uttar Pradesh which is served by as many as families of ten castes for the lifecycle rites.

Thus if some yajna is to be performed for that the services of some Brahmins are essentially needed.

Jajmani System: Concept, Functions and Values of Jajmani System

Although the Jajmani relationship seems to be between castes, in reality, it is between particular families belonging to particular castes. For the Jajmani system, Functionalist and Conflict Theories have just opposite views on this system.

The Rajput family also gets its tools and repairs from the descendants of the same Lohar family whose men made tools for their forefathers. Power of high caste is based on land-ownership and wealth, and kamins do not hold such power. The jajman has to fulfill all the needs of his kamins, and the kamin has to support his jajman systemm disputes. It is a permanent relationship, which is caste-oriented. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Is jajmani system an exploitative system?

All these studies revealed and confirmed the universality of this system in Rural India but they also revealed that there were minor variations in the system from kajmani to region.

This system creates an atmosphere conducive to peaceful living and co-operation. According to Harold Gould, these lower castes make their own jajmani arrangements either through direct exchange of labour or by paying in cash or kind. In this system, the kamins xystem considered low whereas the jajmems are placed high.


This made the kamins to leave their caste occupations and migrate to urban areas. Varnaany one of the four traditional social classes of India. This role consists of economic, social and moral functions. Boycottcollective and organized ostracism applied in labour, economic, political, or social relations to protest practices that are regarded as unfair. Panchayat, the most important adjudicating and licensing agency in the self-government of an Indian caste.

Jajmani System: Concept, Functions and Values of Jajmani System

First, kamins are not totally dependent upon their jajmans for their livelihood. The caste councils have the power to punish the jajmans and kamins, if they commit any mistake.

As a jajmnai, the jajman lost the services of the kamin. Security of occupation is guaranteed in case of jajmani system.

Jajmani System in Indian Caste System: Definition, Function and Other Details

It is basically a mutual relation between the sub-ordinate and super-ordinate power of society. Jajmani system has stood on the way of occupational mobility and resulted in lowering economic standard of the kamins. Various land reforms had their impact on the interaction among castes, which gradually had affected the jajmani system and other social systems of village life.

His difficulty will not be in dismissing him, but in finding a substitute. According to Harold Gould, the Jajmani system is inter-relation of Jajmans patrons and Kameen syetem castes for the sake of maintaining an economic and religious equilibrium.

For the services rendered, the servicing castes are paid in cash or in kind grains, fodder, clothes, and animal products like milk, butter, etc.

jajmani system | Characteristics & Facts |

Exclusive Offers on Amazon. Oscar Lewis studied Jajmani in North Indian villages.

Religiously, it is an institutional arrangement that makes the Brahmin dependent for subsistence on the jajmans, who constitute his clients. This is because the kamins sysstem are needed during the performance of religious rituals, they are provided with the social support by their jajmans and get financial or in kind also benefits for their services from jajmans.

The changes taking place in the caste system, religious system, political structure, kinship, brought about a change in the jajmani system. The sacred, systdm and the secular Hindu literature and oral traditions authorise and justify the jajman-kamin relationship. Yogendra Singh also believes that villages in India are changing today in respect of economic institutions, power structure and inter-caste relationships.


They are ill-treated by jajmaji Jajmans. The kamin may be dependent on the jajman for his house-site, for places where his animals may graze, for wood and cow-dung fuel, for loan of tools, and so forth. The rigidity in the caste system decreased, which made possible for kamins to take up new opportunities of employment.

The hereditary character allows for certain forms of bond labour, since it is the family obligation to serve its hereditary patrons. Cultivators also prefer to buy articles for their daily needs, from the market, by paying cash. Functionalist theory, on one hand, saw Jajmani system as a natural process to maintain an systeem of harmony, unity, and discipline. The specific problem is: Caste system is the basis of jajmani system. They also jajmsni groups jajmsni which the lower division is bound to work for their superior people for food or financial expenses.

There are various norms concerning rights, duties, payments, concessions, etc. On the other hand, Marxist has a different view that this system is exploiting occupational workers in the name of cultural and financial exchange. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.

According to Harold Gould, in such a situation, the lower castes make their own jajmani arrangements either through direct exchange of labour sydtem by paying in cash or kind. Indian caste system Hinduism in India Islam in India.

The patrons are the families of clean castes while the suppers of services are the families of lower and unclean caste. Caste and Politics in Indian Society. It is the relationship between families that continue to exist over time. This article possibly contains original research.

For services rendered the servicing castes are paid in cash or in kind grains, fodder, clothes, animal products like milk, butter etc. Though these castes are considered to be lower castes, they do not provide their services to jajmzni Harijans.