Dalorto, Angelino, and Notizia Di Alberto Magnaghi, La Carta Nautica Costruita Nel Maggiolo, Vesconte, Atlas of Portolan charts (Naples, ). Medina . of Geographical Discovery” Peter Martyr d’Anghiera, De Orbe Novo, A Carta Nautica de ”, published in , Esparsos, Coimbra. vol. GIR ALDI’S SYNTAGMA DE MUSIS (, AND ),. DE DEIS GENTIUM . critized Giraldi, together with Conti and Carta tation is 61 De re nautica libellus, admiranda quadam et recondita eruditione refertus, nunc primum natus et.
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Descobrimentos portugueses are the numerous territories and maritime routes discovered by the Portuguese as a result of their intensive maritime exploration during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Portuguese sailors were at the vanguard of European overseas exploration, discovering and mapping the coasts of Africa, Canada, Asia and Brazil, in what became known as the Age of Discovery. Methodical expeditions started in along West Africa’s coast under the sponsorship of prince Henry the Navigatorwith Bartolomeu Dias reaching the Cape of Good Hope and entering the Nauticaa Ocean in Ten years later, inVasco da Gama led the first fleet around Africa to Indiaarriving in Calicut and starting a maritime route from Portugal to India.
Portuguese explorations then proceeded to southeast Asia, where they reached Japan inforty-four years after their first arrival in India. In king Denis of Portugal took personal interest in the development of exports, having organized the export of surplus production to European countries. On May nautiva, he instituted a maritime insurance fund for Portuguese traders living in the County of Flanderswhich were to pay certain sums according to tonnage, accrued to them when necessary.
Portuguese imported armors and munitions, fine clothes and several manufactured products from Ccarta and Italy. In king Denis made an agreement with Genoese merchant sailor Manuel Pessanha Pesagnoappointing him first Admiral with trade privileges with his homeland in return for twenty war ships and crews, with the goal of defending the country against Muslim pirate raids, thus laying the basis for the Portuguese Navy and establishment of a Genoese merchant community in Portugal.
Genoese and Florentine communities established since then in Portugal, who profited from the enterprise and financial experience of these rivals of the Republic of Venice.
In the second half of the fourteenth century outbreaks of bubonic plague led to severe depopulation: Only the sea offered alternatives, with most people settling in fishing and trading coastal areas.
In the Canary Islandsnatica known to Genoese, were officially discovered under the patronage of the Portuguese king, but in Castile disputed them, further propelling the Portuguese navy efforts.
InCeuta was occupied by the Portuguese aiming to control navigation of the African coast, moved by expanding Christianity with the avail of the Pope and a desire of the unemployed nobility nauticq epic acts of war after nauticz reconquista. Young prince Henry the Navigator was there and became aware of profit possibilities in the Saharan carts routes. Governor of the rich Order of Christ since and holding valuable monopolies on resources in Algarve, he invested in sponsoring voyages down the coast of Mauritania, gathering a group of merchants, shipowners, stakeholders and participants interested in the sea lanes.
Later his brother Prince Pedrogranted him a royal monopoly of all profits from trading within the areas discovered. Soon the Atlantic islands of Madeira and Azores were reached. There wheat and later sugarcane nauica cultivated, like in Algarve, by the Genoese, becoming profitable activities. This helped them become more wealthy. Henry the Navigator took the lead role in encouraging Portuguese maritime exploration until his death in Henry wished to know how far the Muslim territories in Africa extended, and whether it was possible to reach Asia by sea, both to reach the source of the lucrative spice trade and perhaps to join forces with the long-lost Christian kingdom of Prester John that was rumoured to exist somewhere in the “Indies”.
In Zarco and Teixeira returned with Bartolomeu Perestrelo and began Portuguese settlement of the islands. A Portuguese attempt to capture Grand Canaryone of the nearby Canary Islandswhich had been partially settled by Spaniards in was unsuccessful and met with protestations from Castile.
At around the same time as nautuca unsuccessful attack on the Canary Islands, the Portuguese began to explore the North African coast. Sailors feared carra lay beyond Cape Bojadorand whether it was possible to return once it was passed.
In one of Prince Henry’s captains, Gil Eanespassed this obstacle. Once this psychological barrier had been crossed, it became easier to probe further along the coast. Diogo Silves discovered the Azores island of Santa Maria in and in the following years Portuguese discovered and settled the naktica of the Azores. Within two decades of exploration, Portuguese ships bypassed the Sahara.
Henry suffered a serious setback in after the failure 151 an expedition to capture Tangierhaving encouraged his brother, King Edwardto carfa an overland attack from Ceuta. The Portuguese army was defeated and only escaped destruction by nauyica Prince Ferdinandthe king’s youngest brother.
In Najtica PedroHenry’s brother, granted him the monopoly of navigation, war and trade in the lands south of Cape Bojador. Later this monopoly would be enforced by the Papal bulls Dum Diversas and Romanus Pontifexgranting Portugal the trade monopoly for the newly discovered countries,  laying the basis for the Portuguese empire.
A major advance which accelerated this project was the introduction of the caravel in the midth century, a ship that could be sailed closer to the wind than any other in operation in Europe at the time. The first feitoria trade post overseas was established then under Henry’s directions, in on the island of Arguin off the coast of Mauritania, to attract Muslim traders and monopolize the business in the routes traveled in North Africa, starting the chain of Portuguese feitorias along the coast.
InGomes’ explorerers reached Elmina on the Gold Nzutica present day Ghanaand discovered a thriving gold trade between the natives and visiting Arab and Berber traders. Trade between Carts and Portugal grew in the next decade. InBartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope on the southern tip of Africa, disproving the view that had existed since Ptolemy that the Indian Ocean was separate from the Atlantic.
He recommended further exploration of the southern route. From these bases, the Portuguese engaged profitably in the slave and gold trades. Portugal enjoyed a virtual monopoly of the Atlantic slave trade for over a century, exporting around slaves annually.
Most were brought to the Portuguese capital Lisbonwhere it is estimated black Africans came to constitute 10 per cent of the population.
In 15111 Columbus ‘s discovery for Spain of the New Worldwhich he believed to be Asia, led to disputes between the Spanish and Portuguese. However, as it was not possible at the time to correctly measure longitudethe exact boundary was disputed by the two countries until The completion of these negotiations with Spain is one of several reasons proposed by historians for why it took nine farta for the Portuguese to follow up on Dias’s voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, though it has also been speculated that other voyages were in fact taking place in secret during this time.
The squadron of Vasco da Gama left Portugal inrounded the Cape and continued along the coast of East Africa, where a local pilot was brought on board who guided them across the Indian Oceanreaching Calicut in western India in May While following the same south-westerly route as Gama across the Atlantic Ocean, Cabral made landfall on the Mautica coast.
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This was probably an accidental discovery, but it has been speculated that the Portuguese secretly knew of Brazil’s existence and that it lay on their side of the Tordesillas line. The land was found to be abundant in pau-brasilor brazilwoodfrom which it later inherited its name, but the failure to find gold or silver meant that for the time being Portuguese efforts were concentrated on India.
On 8 July the fleet, consisting of four ships and a crew of men, left Lisbon The travel led by Vasco da Gama to Calicut was the starting point for deployment of Portuguese in the African east coast and in the Indian Ocean. After some conflict, he got an ambiguous letter for trade with the Zamorin of Calicut, leaving there some men to establish a trading post.
Since then explorations lost the private nature, taking place under the exclusive of the Portuguese Crown. The aim of Portugal in the Indian Ocean was to ensure the monopoly of the spice trade.
Taking advantage of the rivalries that pitted Hindus against Muslims, the Portuguese established several forts and trading posts between and In East Africasmall Islamic states along the coast of MozambiqueKilwaBravaSofala and Mombasa were destroyed, or became either subjects or allies of Portugal. In the second fleet to India who came to discover Brazil explored the East African coast, where Diogo Dias discovered the island that he named St. Lawrence, later known as Madagascar. After bombarding Calicut as a retaliation, Cabral went to rival Kochi.
Profiting from the rivalry between the Maharaja of Kochi and the Zamorin of Calicut, the Portuguese were well received and seen as allies, getting a permit to build a fort Fort Manuel and a trading post that were the first European settlement in India.
There in they built the St. In king Manuel I of Portugal appointed Francisco de Almeida first Viceroy of Portuguese India for a three-year period, starting the Portuguese government in the east, headquartered at Kochi. That year the Portuguese conquered Kannur where they founded St. Finding it divided into seven rival kingdoms, he established a defense 151 with the kingdom of Kotte and extended the control in coastal areas, where in was founded the fortress of Colombo.
That same year were built fortresses in the Island of Mozambique and Mombasa on the Kenyan coast. The Portuguese victory was critical for its strategy of control of the Indian Sea: Turks and Egyptians withdraw their navies from India, leaving the seas to the Portuguese, setting its trade dominance for almost a century, and greatly assisting the growth of the Portuguese Empire.
It marked also the beginning of the European colonial dominance in the Asia. Under the government of Albuquerque, Goa was taken from the Bijapur sultanate in with the help of Hindu privateer Timoji.
Coveted for being the best port in the region, mainly for the commerce of Arabian horses for the Deccan sultanatesit allowed to move on from the initial guest stay in Cochin. Despite constant attacks, Goa became the seat 15511 the Portuguese government, under the name of Estado da India State of Indiawith the conquest 15111 compliance of neighbour kingdoms: Gujarat and Calicut nautcia embassies, offering alliances and grants to fortify.
Albuquerque began that nautic in Goa the first Portuguese mint in India, taking the opportunity to announce the achievement. The port of Malacca became then the strategic base for Portuguese trade expansion with China and Southeast Asia, under the Portuguese rule in India with its capital at Goa.
To defend the city a strong fort was erected, called the “A Famosa”, where one of its gate still remains today.
Knowing of Siamese ambitions over Malacca, Albuquerque sent immediately Duarte Fernandes on a diplomatic mission to the kingdom of Siam modern Thailandwhere he was the first European to arrive, establishing amicable relations between both kingdoms.
That same year, in Indonesia, the Portuguese took Makassarreaching Timor in This visit was catra the arrival in Guangzhouwhere trade was established. Later a trade post at Macau would be established. The Portuguese empire expanded into the Persian Gulf as Portugal contested control of the spice trade with the Ottoman Empire.
InAfonso de Albuquerque conquered the Huwala state of Czrta at the head of the Persian Gulf, establishing it as a vassal state. In the Azores, nsutica Islands Armada protected the ships en route to Lisbon. The conflict with the Portuguese already established in nearby Ternate was inevitable, starting nearly a decade of skirmishes. An agreement was reached only with the Treaty of Zaragozaattributing the Moluccas to Portugal and the Philippines to Spain.
That same year, there was a new expedition from Martim Afonso de Sousa with orders to patrol the whole Brazilian coast, banish the French, and create the first colonial towns: With permanent settlement came the establishment of the sugar cane industry and its intensive labor demands which were met with Native American and later African slaves.
In Gujarat was occupied by the Mughals and the Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was forced to sign the Naugica of Bassein with the Portuguese, establishing an alliance to regain the country, giving in exchange Daman nauticq, DiuMumbai and Bassein.
Another siege failed in putting an end to the Ottoman ambitions, confirming the Portuguese hegemony.
In the Portuguese bought a Japanese darta where they founded the city of Nagasaki thus creating a trading center for many years was the port from Japan to the world.
Guarding its trade from both European and Asian competitors, Portugal dominated not only the trade between Asia and Europe, but also much of the trade between different regions of Asia, such as IndiaIndonesiaChinaand Japan. Until the 15th century, the Portuguese were limited to cabotage navigation using barques and barinels ancient cargo vessels used in the Mediterranean. These boats were small and fragile, with only one mast with a fixed quadrangular sail and did not have the capabilities to overcome the navigational difficulties associated with Southward oceanic exploration, as the strong windsshoals and strong ocean currents easily overwhelmed their abilities.
They are associated with the earliest discoveries, such as the Madeira Islands, the Azoresthe Canariesand to the early exploration of the north west African coast as far south as Arguim in the current Mauritania.
The ship that truly launched the first phase of the Portuguese discoveries along the African coast was the caravela development based on existing fishing boats.
They were agile and easier to navigate, with a tonnage of 50 to tons and 1 to 3 masts, with lateen triangular sails allowing luffing. The caravel benefited from a greater capacity to tack. The limited capacity for cargo and crew were their main drawbacks, but have not hindered its success.
With the start of long oceanic sailing also large ships developed.
Due to the piracy that plagued the coasts, they began to be used in the navy and were provided with canon windows, which led to the classification of “naus” according to the power of its artillery.