Mar 25 2020

G. R. Driver & L. Hodgson, The Bazaar of Heracleides, newly translated from the Syriac and edited with an introduction, notes & appendices. only surviving full-length work, the Bazaar of Heracleides.1 The publication of the Syriac text in , together with a French translation in the same year, is of. It is called indeed the Bazaar of Heracleides, for this is evident that it is the bazaar of spiritual knowledge; but it is not evident who Heracleides [was]. This is .

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But it is right to tell what I consider to be the truth. But if thou sayest that the one, whose it is not to suffer in his nature, has suffered in nature, it is a folly to say that he has suffered in another nature; but he who comes to folly surely deceives, and like the Manichaeans makes our very salvation to have taken place in deception.

What means “He was found in bodily frame”? Or is it [a nature] mortal and passible and heracldides needs, which came into being yesterday and to-day and which belongs neither to men nor to God nor to any other nature, but is mixed from two natures for the completion of one nature?

For he 82 lays down the common name ‘Lord’, which is conceived of nature and in nature, as well as the things which are indicative of the properties of the natures, indicating them both, the divinity and the humanity, the one from God the Father in nature and the other of a woman in nature.

Jalland heraclrides his help in drawing up that appendix; and to the proprietors of the Journal of Theological Studies for permission to reprint Appendix IV from their pages. As we have added in our very words: Did the Evangelist speak of another Word or heracliedes God the Word, by whom everything came into being, life and the true light, who came unto his own and his own received him not, who gave authority unto those that received him to become the sons of God, [who] were born not of blood nor of the will of the flesh but of God?

What therefore has carried him 18 oc to find another way and a beginning apart heracleided that which the fathers had made, so that he came to anathematize all those things which had been said by them and of necessity to say all those things which had been anathematized by them? Speak confidently, undaunted, using manfully and adequately every one of their arguments even as they themselves [do]; for no one who is hesitating in his thoughts can strive manfully.

Here am I and the children which God has given me How then dost thou bid us understand these diversities of the natures in the union? And what is there absurd in our confessing so? For if all the judges had been assembled and the accusers had risen in their place and the accused also likewise, all of them would heracleidez have had freedom of speech, hheracleides of his being in everything both accuser and emperor and judge.


Nestorius, The Bazaar of Heracleides — now online – Roger Pearse

His trouble was rather that that confusion in the apparent nature of things which is the challenge to thought was too many-sided for so narrow and precise a thinker as he. So they are 84 constrained to say the contrary of what they seek to say, so that they accuse God and make excuse for the evil one, and they put forth all [their] might in vain and reason contrary to the incarnation of God.

For this idea he has also in the very thing which he says in his letter: For this is evident; for the Evangelist said this also concerning him: Purchase Subscription prices and ordering Short-term Access To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above.

This antithesis was, of course, common to him herackeides to his opponents, but he seems to have developed his doctrine by the strictly logical working out of such principles. For those things which have not [a thing] in their nature receive it in their nature by the union of nature; but the things which are united in virtue of a natural union are united with the natural passibility of the other and accept not voluntarily mutual sufferings, as the body and the soul, receiving not in their nature their own mutual properties except by the union of nature, participate in one another and give and receive mutual sufferings by the necessity of nature in such wise that he suffers who would not have suffered of himself.

And I was summoned by Cyril who had assembled the Council, even by Cyril who was the chief thereof. Eutyches’ godson, the eunuch Chrysaphius, xxv gains an ascendancy over Theodosius, and Pulcheria’s influence declines.

Or is there still something lacking which they ought to establish?

Nestorius, The Bazaar of Heracleides — now online

So if there had also been a union of nature with the soul and the body for God the Word, in such a way that he received from the union of nature that which he had not in his nature of itself: He is not able to wish not to be what he is, but only to be that which he is not.

An Imperial Rescript proscribes the works of Porphyry and Nestorius, and orders the deposition of Irenaeus. No reason also can be assigned either for the fact that in the phrase ‘he who begins and grows and is perfected is not God, although he is so called on account of the gradual growth’ the translator always substitutes ‘revelation’ or ‘manifestation’ for ‘growth’ Gk.

For supposing that baxaar 41 be found [to be] an Arian, he will call you as witnesses against those who were assembled at Nicaea, as though indeed they had openly risen up with audacity against Arius, to say what they ought not, namely, saying that he who is passible and mortal and made is consubstantial with him who is impassible and immortal and the maker of all created things.

As it seems to me, the opinion to which heracleixes dost cling is not more in harmony with these, but with those who change the ousia into the nature of flesh and blood without thinking that the ousia of the flesh and blood of our Lord is common, but that it is of Heracleidew the Word and not of men.


Now in the fifth century the implications of the heraclfides of creation do not seem to have been thought out. Cyril was the bishop of Alexandria and took the place of the holy and saintly bishop of Rome, Celestinus. As then to him who has conquered and been victorious in all things there has been given in return for the honour of his victory authority to preach and to announce the hope of the kingdom of heaven, saying: By diminution indeed the nature without needs and impassible became a passible and needful nature.

Who is just or who is unrighteous? And it is not he who combats and is judged, but to the extent of appropriation he has 83 brought it 71 nigh unto his own image and not to the nature of the invincible and impassible ousia heracleieds the divinity.

For the whole opinion of the world is agreed that God can do everything whatsoever he wishes.

The Bazaar Of Heracleides

Nestorius’s opponents charged him with detaching Christ’s divinity and humanity into two persons existing in one body, thereby denying the reality of the Incarnation. But in this if neither those who say, as the Arians, that the flesh was united to God by a natural composition and that it suffered by natural sufferings, nor again those who say that the union took place with the rational soul and the flesh in such wise that it suffered by a natural sensibility the sufferings of the body and of the unreasonable and irrational soul, establish in truth the doctrine of the incarnation.

But Apollinarius condemns those who say these things while [otherwise] confessing like those who cleave unto his own faith, and commands them to keep aloof from those who say these things and to off his own partisans and to anathematize all those who dissent from him. Gazaar they predicate two whole natures of the divinity and of the humanity and they predicate a change of natures by union, attributing nothing either to the humanity or to the divinity in making over the things of humanity to the nature heracleiddes those of the divinity to the nature.

He has the letters of Theodosius read, but prevents the reading of Leo’s Tome.

Seeing then that a certain number of errors can be charged to the account of the Syriac translator and proved against him, it is not too bold to assume in a few passages similar mistakes. For, as you say, hercaleides flesh is not flesh, because it has been changed by him into the ousia of God the Word by means of a mixture and a union. Instead of [being] the accused you hreacleides made him sit as the judge of [his] adversary.

Cyril stirs up accusers against Nestorius.